Red currant: the main stages in growing and care

Red currant is a perennial deciduous shrub with a height of 0.5 to 2 m. In its wild form, it is found on forest edges, on the banks of rivers or streams throughout Eurasia. This is a favorite berry of many gardeners, modern varieties with good care are capable of producing up to 10-12 kg of juicy, sour berries.

The history of growing red currants

The first mentions of red currants in Western Europe date back to the 15th century. The plant was used to form a hedge and the berries were used medicinally. Around the same time, currants began to be grown in Russia, mainly in monasteries, using berries as a medicine and making tinctures from them.

A well-groomed red currant bush is very beautiful during the ripening period and can decorate any garden

Currently, the leading country in the cultivation of red currants is the United States. But even in Russia, this culture is not forgotten: in almost every garden plot you can find 1-2 bushes.

Red currant is a winter-hardy plant, withstands frosts down to -40aboutC. In summer, thanks to its powerful root system, it suffers much less from the heat than black currant, and the life expectancy of the bush is up to 20 years without reducing yield.

In dry gardens, without watering and without human attention, red currant bushes grow up to 50–70 cm in height and give a small harvest. With regular feeding and watering or in low-lying places where groundwater is close to the ground, red currants grow into a powerful bush up to 2 m in height and can produce up to 12 kg of berries.

The currant blooms with inconspicuous flowers, collected in a brush

The currant blooms in May with nondescript yellow-green flowers, collected in a brush. Depending on the region and variety of currants, ripening of berries can begin by mid-June or July. Ripening is uneven: the first to ripen are the berries that are in the sun. Red currants rarely crumble from the bush, so they can be harvested as needed. They pick red currants like grapes - with a brush, without tearing the berries, so they are better stored and transported.

Red currants from the bush are harvested in bunches

Red currant satisfies both hunger and thirst; it contains a lot of vitamin C, the daily amount of which can be replenished by eating just a handful of this berry. In addition, the berry contains pectin, so the red currant jelly is thick. Compotes, jams, preserves, jelly, marmalade, tinctures, wines, liqueurs are prepared from it.

Red currant varieties

In order to enjoy fresh red currant berries all summer long, you can plant varieties that are different in terms of ripening: early, mid-season and late. You can also pick up bushes with different shades of berries: red, burgundy, pink. Some varieties of red currants bear fruit perfectly in single bushes, that is, they are self-fertile (capable of pollinating with their own pollen), while others need a pollinator neighbor.

Depending on the variety, red currant berries can be small (0.7 g) or large, reaching 1.5 cm in diameter and weighing up to 1.5 g.

Table: main varieties of red currants

Photo gallery: varieties of red currants for the Moscow region

Photo gallery: varieties of red currants for Siberia and the Urals

The main stages of red currant farming

Red currants are much less demanding to care for than black currants. It begins to bear fruit in the second or third year after planting, increasing yield every year. To maintain the declared varietal yield for many years, you need to regularly feed, water the bush during especially hot summer months and remove very old branches.

Planting red currants

For planting red currants, it is advisable to choose a bright place protected from cold winds with fertile soil. However, if in your area in the summer in the sun the thermometer rises to 50aboutC, then plant the currants under the trees, in partial shade, preferably from the northeast side, so that the sun illuminates it only until noon.

Preparing the soil for planting red currants

It is better to plant red currants in loose loamy or sandy loamy soils with a neutral reaction. On acidic soils or in wetlands, red currants grow very poorly.

2-3 weeks before planting the currants, we begin to prepare the planting pit. In the selected area, we dig a hole with a diameter of 50-60 cm and a depth of a shovel bayonet. In places with clay soil, you can dig a larger hole so that the currants do not lack nutrients.

2 weeks before planting the seedling, prepare a hole with a diameter of 50 cm and a depth on the bayonet of a shovel

Mix the removed soil with a bucket of compost (humus), a glass of ash and 200 g of superphosphate. We put everything back into the hole and water thoroughly to compact the soil.

Planting red currant cuttings

If you want to try a new variety, it is better to order planting material with a closed root system - in pots or special bags.

It is better to buy cuttings with a closed root system

Local nurseries often grow currants outdoors without pots and sell them with an open root system, so take care of the preservation of the roots in advance: take a damp cloth and a bag where you will wrap the lower part of the seedling.

The best time for planting red currants in central Russia is the beginning of autumn, literally the first days of September: there is no longer the summer heat, and the cuttings root perfectly. For the southern regions, planting dates are shifted one month later.

Stages of planting red currants:

  1. Before planting, soak the roots or a pot with a seedling in water for 1-2 hours.
  2. In the prepared planting pit, we dig a small depression corresponding to the size of the root.
  3. If the red currant grows in a pot with soil, then it is carefully pulled out of the pot without damaging the earthen ball. Straighten the roots if they are twisted into a spiral.

    If in a pot of earth the roots began to grow in a spiral, they must be straightened

  4. The pot is placed in the planting hole obliquely, at an angle of 45about to the north, the root collar is buried 5–7 cm below the soil level.

    Correct planting of currant cuttings: the root collar is deepened, the cutting itself looks to the north

  5. The seedling is covered with soil and watered.
  6. The trunk circle is mulched with straw or leaves, branches that are too long are shortened, leaving no more than 25 cm above the ground.

How to preserve red currant seedlings before planting

Sometimes it happens that purchased seedlings come too early in the spring, when there is still snow in the garden and planting in a permanent place is impossible.

Storing a seedling with an open root system in a warm apartment is simply unacceptable. When it is not possible to place the plant in a cool basement, for example, if the buds have already opened, then you need to take a pot or pots with fertile soil and temporarily plant a seedling there.

Small seedlings obtained in the fall can be stored until spring without planting them in pots, but placing them on the lower shelf of the refrigerator. First, you need to wrap the roots with a damp cloth, and the trunks with thick paper.

Planting red currant seeds

Currants reproduce well by seeds, but very often the descendants do not repeat the qualities of the parent bush, especially if several different varieties of red currants grow on the site, which can be pollinated.

Usually, the seeds of ripe berries are simply squeezed onto the soil, sprinkling them with earth. Spring waters promote swelling and germination of seeds, and by the end of summer small but strong seedlings grow.

Video: currant from seeds

Friends and foes of red currant

Many gardeners are aware of the compatibility of vegetables and specially match pairs for better fruiting and neighborhood. But not everyone even suspects that there is also mutual love and enmity among the bushes and trees.

Most often, you can observe the planting of shrubs along the fence, and black and red currants are planted nearby. It turns out that gooseberries are the best neighbor for red currants, and black currants prefers honeysuckle as neighbors, and not their red-berry relatives.

The best neighbor for red currants is gooseberries.

In addition, all berry bushes love planting tomatoes, velvet flowers, calendula, mint and other aromatic herbs in their near-stem circle. With their essential oils, they ward off various pests of currants.

Top dressing of red currants

In the year of planting, red currants do not need additional feeding, because a significant amount of humus and mineral fertilizers are introduced into the pit.

In subsequent years, currants should be fed at least 2 times a year: in spring and autumn.

Table: feeding red currants

In addition to these dressings, it is very good to mulch the trunk circle with straw, grass, hay, leaves and once every 2 weeks spill with preparations containing beneficial bacteria (Shining, Baikal EM-1, Vostok).

Never feed the currants with nitrogenous fertilizers at the end of summer - a new growth of shoots will begin, which will not have time to prepare for winter and will freeze.

Photo gallery: preparations for increasing soil fertility

If it is not possible to use organic matter, then in early spring, when loosening the soil, add 10 g of urea per 1 m2, in June - infusion of bird droppings, and in October - 100 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium chloride.

Red currant pruning

Fruiting of red currants occurs on branches that are 2 to 5 years old. But since currants release several new shoots every spring, in general there should be from 20 to 25 branches of different ages on the bush.

The oldest, five-year-old branches are harvested immediately after picking the berries, and in the summer, excess spring branches are removed (this year's growth), leaving 4 or 5 of the healthiest and most powerful branches. In July, the branches are pinched to get lateral growth.

Ideally, the red currant bush should contain at the same time:

  • 4–5 branches of spring growth (one-year-olds);
  • 4-5 last year's branches (two-year-olds) with berries;
  • 4–5 branches of three years old with berries;
  • 4–5 branches of four years of age with berries;
  • 4–5 branches of five years old, which are cut off immediately after picking berries from them.

Pruning of the currant bush is also carried out in spring and autumn. Broken or frozen branches can be removed in spring, and old, diseased or no longer fruiting branches in autumn. Usually, the shoot of red currant branches little, so it is not shortened, but cut to the ground level.

How to rejuvenate red currants in spring

If your red currant has not seen a pruner for a long time and has turned into huge thickets, then the harvest on such a bush will be insignificant, and the berries will be small. To correct the situation, you need a cardinal anti-aging pruning, which is usually carried out in the spring before bud break.

To rejuvenate the plant, all branches are pruned flush with the ground.

  1. First, remove old thick and dark brown branches by cutting at ground level.
  2. Remove upward fattening shoots, leaving sloping ones.
  3. Remove horizontally directed bottom branches.
  4. Remove shoots growing inside the bush.

Red currants like the bush to be blown by the wind, so regular haircuts are essential.

Reproduction of red currant

The easiest way is to propagate currants by cuttings or layering - in this case, the young bush will completely repeat the mother plant.

Propagation by cuttings

  1. At the end of August, with rejuvenating pruning, cut off a few shoots and cut into pieces 20–25 cm long, remove the leaves.
  2. Each shoot should have 4–5 buds, make the lower cut oblique 0.5–1 cm below the bud, and the upper cut straight 1 cm above the bud.
  3. Dip each stalk in the lower part in the Kornevin preparation and plant it in the soil in a permanent place or for rooting in a separate bed with loose soil.
  4. Plant the stalk at an angle of 45about, with 2 buds immersed in the ground, and the rest should be above the ground.
  5. When planting in a garden, leave 15–20 cm between cuttings.
  6. Water the cuttings and mulch with loose compost, peat or dry soil. Monitor the soil periodically so that it does not dry out.
  7. By the end of autumn, cuttings usually take root, the next spring shoots appear from the buds.

A stalk of red currant quickly takes root and takes root

Reproduction by layering

  1. In the spring, they choose a last year's shoot and bend it to the ground, where a groove 5–8 cm deep is specially dug.
  2. The shoot is laid so that the crown is above the ground, and the shoot itself is in the groove.
  3. Pin the shoot to the ground with wire arcs and sprinkle it with loose soil by 1 cm.
  4. When sprouts appear from the buds and grow up to 10 cm, then they are sprinkled with loose soil almost to the upper leaves.
  5. It is important to keep the soil at the cuttings moist.
  6. Adding soil is carried out several times during the summer.
  7. In mid-September, the shoot is cut off from the mother bush and carefully dug up.
  8. The branch is cut into pieces according to the number of rooted shoots and planted in a permanent place.

Several shoots can grow from one layer.

Processing red currants from pests and diseases

Plants with high immunity are rarely affected by diseases and pests, so you need to follow the rules of agricultural technology and carry out preventive spraying.

  1. Plant in a ventilated, sunny area.
  2. Do not thicken the plantings, leave 1–2 m between the plants, and the distance to buildings should be at least 1 m.
  3. Remove diseased branches or plant parts in a timely manner - do not allow diseases to spread.
  4. Do anti-aging pruning for better ventilation.
  5. For prophylaxis, in the spring, spray the currants with a mixture of drugs: Fitolavin + Pharmayod + Fitoverm (dilute 1 tbsp of each drug in 10 liters of water).
  6. Every week, starting from the appearance of the first leaves, spray the currants with a bio-cocktail: dilute 2 Ekoberin and Zdorovy Sad granules in 1 liter of water and add 2 drops of liquid HB-101.

Such measures make it possible to grow currants without the use of chemicals, since the proposed preparations are biological.

Photo gallery: preparations for the prevention of the appearance of pests and diseases on red currants

Bio-cocktail increases the plant's immunity, reduces the negative effects of stress: heat, temperature changes, wind.

Photo gallery: pests of red currants

If pests have appeared on the currants, then biological products are used: Fitoverm - from ticks and aphids, Bitoxibacillin - from caterpillars. Spraying is carried out 2-3 times with an interval of 4-5 days.

Photo gallery: diseases of red currant

Growing red currants on a trunk

In addition to the standard growing of currants by a bush, the standard formation of red currants is often used.

Table: pros and cons of standard currant cultivation

How to give the currants a standard shape

  1. To obtain a standard currant, you need to plant a thick, naked annual shoot. When the shoot reaches the desired height of the trunk, pinch the top.

    Formation of red currants on a trunk

  2. The next year, we remove all lateral shoots and processes along the entire length of the trunk, and in August we pinch the crown shoots.
  3. In the third year, last year's shoots will give the first harvest. The stem care is the aforementioned. Again, pinch the tops of annual shoots in the crown.
  4. The fourth year: the currants bear fruit almost at full strength, we cut off the old branches after picking the berries, and pinch the young ones.
  5. Further care for the standard currant remains the same: removal of root suckers and shoots on the stem of the stem.

Currants can be grown in a small tree - on a trunk.She is very decorative

Growing red currants on a trellis

This is a very unusual way of growing red currants, used more in industry than in personal gardening.

Wall of red currant grown on a trellis

The essence of the method is to grow currant bushes in one plane - vertical. With a large volume of landings, a wall is obtained.

Table: advantages and disadvantages of growing currants on a trellis

How to grow currants on a trellis

  1. First of all, high-yielding varieties that are resistant to diseases and pests are selected for growing currants on a trellis. The berries must be large, marketable and have good taste, the yield of the bushes is at least 4 kg.
  2. The trellis is made with high quality, with digging holes and pouring cement with racks there. The extreme supports should be additionally strengthened with stretch marks, and the lower ends of the supports should be treated with anti-rot or anti-corrosion agents. The height of the posts is 2–2.5 m, a wire is pulled on them every 50 cm.
  3. Two-year-old currant seedlings are planted along the trellis at a distance of 0.7-1 m from each other. Each seedling must be pruned, leaving about 20 cm of a stem with three buds.

    Formation of red currants on a trellis

  4. The next spring, these buds will produce powerful shoots, they are fanned out and tied to the lower wire.
  5. The next year, these branches are left to grow upward, and new young shoots from the root are fanned out and tied to a trellis. At the end of summer, pruning is carried out, shortening the shoots, thereby forcing them to branch.
  6. In subsequent years, they also continue to form the wall, and from the age of 5 the bush is rejuvenating pruning, cutting out old shoots and replacing them with new ones.

The red currant on the trellis is a solid wall

Red currant is not only a healthy berry, but also a real decoration of the garden. A wide variety of varieties in terms of ripening, color of berries and size will allow you to choose currants to your liking for any gardener.

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Hello, my name is Irina, I am 33 years old. I love my collection of hippeastrum very much, but I do not offend other flowers either.

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Currant: growing in the garden, types and varieties

Author: Natalya Category: Fruit and berry plants Published: February 15, 2019 Last revised: November 02, 2020

  • Listen to the article
  • Planting and caring for currants
  • Botanical description
  • Planting currants
    • When to plant
    • Autumn planting
    • Planting currants in spring
  • Currant care
    • Spring care
    • Summer currant care
    • How to care for the fall
    • Currant processing
    • Watering
    • Top dressing
  • Currant pruning
    • Spring pruning
    • Pruning in the fall
    • Red and white currant pruning
  • Reproduction of currants
    • Reproduction methods
    • Propagation by cuttings
    • Propagation by green cuttings
    • Reproduction by layering
  • Currant diseases and their treatment
  • Currant pests and control
  • Currant varieties
  • Currant hybrids
  • Literature
  • Comments (1)

Currant (Latin Ribes) - a genus of plants of the Gooseberry family, which includes up to two hundred plant species, of which about fifty are common in the Northern Hemisphere. In the XI century, the currant appeared in the monastery gardens of Russia, and only after that it migrated to the countries of Europe. Currant is a very popular horticultural crop in our country. In addition to black and red currants, white and golden currants are also cultivated today, but black currants prevail over other types both as the most delicious berry and as the most useful.
In addition to the fact that it can be usefully consumed fresh, jam, jelly, compotes are made from it, wines, syrups, liqueurs and liqueurs are prepared. Currants are also in demand in medicine, as a raw material for the pharmaceutical industry.

Planting and caring for red currants

  • Landing: in September or mid to late April.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight.
  • The soil: slightly acidic or neutral chernozems, forest soils with a high humus content or loam.
  • Watering: regular and sufficient, especially during the period of active growth and formation of ovaries (early June), as well as during the period of berry filling (late July or early August). Consumption - 20-30 liters of water per m²: the soil should be soaked to a depth of 30-40 cm.
  • Top dressing: in April, urea is added to the soil, in June - slurry or a solution of poultry droppings, although you can fertilize the soil with a mineral complex. In the summer, on cloudy days or in the evenings, foliar dressing is carried out on the leaves with solutions of trace elements - boric acid, zinc sulfate, copper sulfate, manganese sulfate and ammonium molybdenum. In early October, the soil around the bushes is dug up with organic matter, potash and phosphorus fertilizers.
  • Cropping: in early spring or after leaf fall.
  • Reproduction: layering, dividing the bush and cuttings.
  • Pests: the plant can be affected by blackcurrant fruit, gooseberry yellow and pale-footed sawflies, currant gall midges, glass bowls, kidney and spider mites, leaf gall and gooseberry shoot aphids, gooseberry moth, moth and biennial leafworm.
  • Diseases: anthracnose, white spot, European powdery mildew, terry (overgrowth, reversal), nectria drying of shoots, striped mosaic, goblet and columnar rust, gray rot.

Red currant care

In terms of winter hardiness and resistance to fungal diseases, red and white currants are superior to black ones. It is not particularly demanding on moisture, but it needs to be watered periodically, especially during the fruiting period. It is imperative to weed the currants from weeds, which, with their powerful roots, can do a lot of harm.

Red currant bushes need to be fed: in the fall, potassium chloride and superphosphate are introduced, and in the spring - nitrogen fertilizers.

Red currant pruning

In order for the currant to give a rich harvest with large berries, it must be cut off. Pruning is done in autumn or early spring (before sap flow). Also in the summer after the fruiting period can be carried out sanitary pruning... You can learn more about it from the video:

Red currant differs from black currant in terms of fruiting: its fruit buds are formed on perennial shoots and at the base of annual branches. The bushes of red and white currants have much fewer zero-order shoots than black currants, they are less thickened and bear fruit much longer - 15-20 years. Bouquet twigs and ringlets, on which flower buds are laid, live 2-3 times longer than those of black currant. The distribution of berries in the bush is more even; with age, the crop does not shift to the periphery of the crown. therefore red and white currants need less pruning.

Periodically, it is only necessary to remove shoots of the zero order (occasionally in the first years, and from 6-7 years - every season in the fall). At the same time, one-year increments of other orders cannot be cut. Before flowering, try to cut off damaged branches (dry, frozen, affected by pests).

  • For 7 years of development of the bush, red currant forms up to 25 branches. Therefore, from the seventh year, 3-4 of the oldest branches are removed every year, leaving 3-4 young shoots instead.
  • Fruit buds on red currant bushes are formed in tiers, mainly in the upper part. therefore from the age of two, the ends of the branches cannot be cut.
  • In young bushes, the ends of the branches are cut so that 3-4 buds remain above the ground.
  • Weak, diseased, low-lying, broken and old (more than 8 years old) branches should be cut every year.
  • To prevent thickening, from the 6th year it is necessary to remove all excess annual basal shoots.

Watch the video: Flower Garden: How to Plant Red Flowering Currants

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